Treatment and Prevention of Foot and Ankle Pain

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treatment and prevention foot and ankle | Avant Orthopaedics

What is the Anatomy of the Foot?

The foot isn’t a single piece; it consists of several distinct parts that work together seamlessly to allow us to move, balance, and carry out our daily activities.

What are the bones of the human foot | Avant Orthopaedics

What are the Different Regions of the Foot?

At the base of the foot, connecting it to the ankle and leg, lies the hindfoot. This area comprises the talus and calcaneus bones, along with the subtalar joint, which enables the foot to move from side to side. The hindfoot serves as a shock absorber that helps us handle the pressures of standing and moving.

The midfoot acts as a bridge between the hindfoot and the forefoot. It's a complex structure formed by bones like the navicular, cuboid, and three cuneiform bones. These bones work harmoniously to create the arches of the foot – the very arches that grant our feet flexibility and effectively distribute our body weight.

The front part of the foot, known as the forefoot, holds the metatarsals and phalanges, which are essentially the bones of our toes. This region is crucial for propelling us forward, maintaining balance, and evenly distributing our weight during activities like walking and running.

What are the Various Columns of the Foot?

Running along the inner side of the foot is the medial column. It consists of the first, second, and third metatarsals, as well as the cuneiform and navicular bones. This column functions as the main pillar of support, bearing the majority of our body weight.

The lateral column, situated on the outer edge of the foot, primarily focuses on stability. It involves the fourth and fifth metatarsals, along with the cuboid bone, working together to provide balance and a solid foundation during movement.

The muscles of the foot can be classified into two main groups: intrinsic muscles and extrinsic muscles. These muscles collaborate to provide stability, movement, and control of the intricate structures within the foot.

Intrinsic muscles are those that originate and insert within the foot itself. They play a critical role in maintaining the foot's arches, controlling fine movements of the toes, and supporting overall foot function.

Extrinsic muscles are those that originate outside the foot, often in the lower leg, and extend into the foot to control its movement. These muscles play a significant role in activities like walking, running, and maintaining balance.

What is the Anatomy of the Ankle?

The ankle falls within the category of synovial joints, which display the highest degree of mobility. These joints consist of a cavity within one bone that fits into another bone. The ends of the bones within a synovial joint are coated with smooth hyaline cartilage. A synovial membrane, housing lubricating fluid, lines the space between the bones. This fluid-filled sac provides protection and lubrication to the joint, minimising friction and enabling smooth movement.

Also known as the shin bone, this is the larger of the two lower leg bones and forms the inner part of the ankle joint. It plays a crucial role in weight bearing during standing, maintaining balance, movement, and standing.

The fibula is the smaller of the two lower leg bones and runs parallel to the tibia on its outer side. It also supports muscles, tendons, and ligaments.

The talus is a unique bone that sits on top of the calcaneus (heel bone) and forms the lower part of the ankle joint. It facilitates the transfer of weight between the leg and the foot.

What are the Different Ligaments in the Ankle?

The Medial Ligaments are a group of strong ligaments on the inner side of the ankle that connect the tibia to the talus and calcaneus. They help resist excessive eversion (outward rolling) of the foot.

These include the anterior talofibular ligament, calcaneofibular ligament, and posterior talofibular ligament. They are located on the outer side of the ankle and prevent excessive inversion (inward rolling) of the foot.

Treatments Available for Ankle and Foot Pain

What are the Non-Surgical Treatments Available for Foot and Ankle Pain?

Ankle arthroscopy is a minimally invasive procedure that involves inserting a small camera into the ankle joint through small incisions. This allows the surgeon to visualise the joint's interior and diagnose issues such as cartilage damage, loose bone fragments, and inflamed tissues. Surgical instruments can be introduced through additional small incisions to perform repairs, remove debris, or address specific problems identified during the arthroscopy.

This surgical procedure involves making an incision near the heel and removing bony projections (heel spurs) that have formed on the underside of the heel bone. These spurs can be a source of pain, particularly when they come into contact with surrounding soft tissues.

In cases of severe ankle ligament injuries or chronic instability, surgical intervention may be necessary. During this surgery, damaged or torn ligaments are repaired or reconstructed. The surgeon might use sutures, grafts from other tendons or ligaments, or other techniques to restore stability to the ankle joint.

What are the Surgical Treatments Available for Foot and Ankle Pain?

Physical therapy is a crucial component of the treatment plan for many foot and ankle conditions. It involves a combination of exercises, manual techniques, and education to improve mobility, strength, and overall function of the affected area. It is often combined with other treatments to enhance the recovery rate.

Braces and splints are commonly used as non-surgical treatment options for a variety of foot and ankle conditions. They are designed to provide support, stability, and protection to the affected area, allowing for healing and recovery. Healthcare professionals often recommend these devices to manage conditions such as ankle sprains, tendinitis, fractures, and other injuries affecting the foot and ankle.

Over-the-counter pain relievers like ibuprofen and acetaminophen can help reduce pain and inflammation. In some cases, prescription medications, including anti-inflammatory drugs or muscle relaxants, may be recommended by a doctor.

How Can You Reduce the Risk of Developing Foot and Ankle Pain?

Taking steps to reduce the risk of developing knee pain and preserving their condition is essential. Here are some


Engaging in foot-strengthening exercises can enhance the stability and support of your feet, reducing the risk of injuries. Slow and gentle stretches can improve flexibility while strength-based exercises will contribute to better balance and support.


A lack of flexibility can lead to various conditions such as ankle sprains and Achilles tears. Incorporating regular stretching into your routine can promote flexibility, prevent stiffness, and maintain a proper range of motion in your feet and ankles.


Before engaging in high-intensity activities, ensure that your muscles are adequately conditioned. You should start with low-impact exercises and gradually increase intensity to prevent strain and reduce the risk of foot and ankle pain.


When it comes to footwear, comfort matters as much as style. We recommend selecting shoes that provide proper arch support and cushioning, along with having enough space for your toes to move around. Furthermore, whether it's running, walking, or engaging in sports, it's best to have footwear specifically designed for those activities.

When Should You Seek Professional Help?

Seeking professional help for foot and ankle issues is crucial when you experience persistent or severe symptoms that impact your daily life. Listed below are some symptoms that warrant immediate medical attention.

Remember, your feet and ankles are crucial to your mobility and overall well-being. Timely assessment and appropriate treatment can prevent further complications and help you maintain optimal foot and ankle health.

Are You or a Loved One Suffering from Foot and Ankle Pain?

If you or a loved one are experiencing foot and ankle pain, it’s important not to ignore it. This condition can impact your quality of life and mobility. Book an appointment with us at Avant Orthopaedics, to have an accurate diagnosis and receive a treatment plan.

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